1a Applying Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Disciplinary Expertise: Teachers have deep knowledge of the disciplines they teach, including structures, central concepts and skills, prerequisite relationships, and methods of inquiry.

Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Teachers make content accessible to students by understanding and addressing preconceptions, presenting ideas in comprehensible and powerful ways, and thoughtfully implementing the most effective pedagogical approaches.

Knowledge of Interdisciplinary Relationships and Skills: Teachers make interdisciplinary connections to scaffold learning, support engagement, and build essential knowledge and skills that cross disciplines and support student learning in multiple contexts.

1b Knowing and Valuing Students [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Respect for Students’ Identities: Students’ lived experiences and funds of knowledge are the foundation for the development of identity, purpose, intellect, and character.

Understanding of Students’ Current Knowledge and Skills: Learning experiences reflect what students bring and are designed with their current knowledge and skills in mind.

Knowledge of Whole Child Development: Students’ cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development are all addressed in the design of learning environments and experiences to promote student success and autonomy.

Knowledge of the Learning Process and Learning Differences: Learning requires active intellectual engagement and appropriate support aligned to students’ individual differences and needs.


1c Setting Instructional Outcomes [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Value and Relevance: Instructional outcomes represent ambitious learning of important content and meaningful opportunities to support student learning and development.

Alignment to Grade-Level Standards: Instructional outcomes reflect appropriate grade-level standards and communicate high expectations for each student.

Clarity of Purpose: Instructional outcomes clearly define what will be learned, why it is important, and how students will develop and demonstrate mastery of content and skills.

Integration of Multiple Aspects of Student Development: Instructional outcomes integrate academic and social-emotional development to complement and build on one another.


1d Using Resources Effectively [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Instructional Materials: Teachers utilize high-quality instructional materials to ensure access to rigorous content and support specific student needs, furthering engagement and mastery.

Technology and Digital Resources: Technological and digital resources support personalized instruction, equitable learning, engagement, exploration, connection, and student development.

Supports for Students: Teachers seek and provide additional aligned resources and supports that make content and curriculum materials accessible to students and address their individual needs.


1e Planning Coherent Instruction [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Tasks and Activities: Tasks and activities are specifically matched to learning outcomes, encourage higher-level thinking and student agency, and create authentic opportunities to engage with meaningful content.

Flexible Learning: Multiple strategies and approaches are tailored to individual student needs to create the appropriate level of challenge and support for each student.

Student Collaboration: Student groups are an essential component of learning and development, and are organized thoughtfully to maximize opportunities and build on students’ strengths.

1f Designing and Analyzing Assessments [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Congruence with Instructional Outcomes: Aligned assessments provide accurate, clear evidence and allow for the analysis of student understanding and mastery of instructional outcomes.

Criteria and Standards: Criteria and standards for assessment are appropriate and aligned, clearly communicated, and whenever possible have been developed with student input.

Planning Formative Assessments: Teachers plan formative assessments to monitor student progress toward instructional outcomes and support students to monitor their own learning.

Analysis and Application: Teachers consistently use assessment data to direct



2a Cultivating Respectful and Affirming Environments [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Positive Relationships: Teacher-student and student-student interactions demonstrate caring and respect, and honor the dignity of each member of the community.

Sense of Belonging: Teachers and students co-create a community that reflects their unique collective identity and interests as a class while honoring individual identities.

Cultural Responsiveness: Ways of interacting in the classroom are culturally responsive, and they are supported by teachers’ own cultural competence and understanding of societal dynamics and their impact on learning environments.

Positive Conflict Resolution: A clear and culturally competent approach to conflict resolution has been established and is used effectively to resolve conflict and restore trust.

2b Fostering a Culture for Learning [ FFT in Action ] [Scroll Top ]

Purpose and Motivation: Teachers and students share an overarching dedication to both content mastery and personal growth.

Dispositions for Learning: Teachers model, encourage, explicitly teach, and reinforce curiosity, critical thinking, reasoning, and reflection to support student success and their social, emotional, and academic growth.

Student Agency and Pride in Work: Students make informed choices, devote energy to learning, take pride in their accomplishments, and actively suggest ways to make the classroom more joyful, rigorous, and purposeful.

Support and Perseverance: Teachers and students encourage one another to persevere and use strategies to support each other through challenging work.

2c Maintaining Purposeful Environments [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Productive Collaboration: Collaboration is modeled, taught, and reinforced so that students work purposefully and cooperatively in groups, to support one another’s success.

Student Autonomy and Responsibility: Routines support student assumption of responsibility and the development of skills, habits, and mindsets that promote student autonomy.

Equitable Access to Resources and Supports: Resources and supports are deployed efficiently, effectively, and equitably for the benefit of all students.

Non-Instructional Tasks: Teachers complete non-instructional tasks with little to no loss of instructional time or disruption to lesson delivery.

2d Supporting Positive Student Behavior [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Expectations for the Learning Community: Students play an active role in establishing and maintaining expectations for the learning community with regular opportunities for critical reflection both individually and as a group.

Modeling and Teaching Habits of Character: Teachers model, explicitly teach, and reinforce habits that promote learning, ethical behavior, and citizenship.

Self-Monitoring and Collective Responsibility: Students successfully monitor their own behavior, attend to their impact on other students, and appropriately support one another.

2e Organizing Spaces for Learning [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Safety and Accessibility: The learning space is safe and accessible to all students and is modified if necessary by students or teachers to accommodate individual student needs.

Design for Learning and Development: The learning space is thoughtfully designed and adjusted as necessary to support and facilitate learning activities.

Co-Creation and Shared Ownership: Students play a role in the design and adjustment of the learning space and demonstrate a sense of ownership through appropriate participation and interaction.



3a Communicating About Purpose and Content [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Purpose for Learning and Criteria for Success: Teachers communicate the goals and objectives of learning activities and outline an instructional pathway for students to meet the established criteria for success.

Specific Expectations: Student actions during each step of learning activities are clearly and effectively communicated with specific expectations articulated and reinforced throughout.

Explanations of Content: Content knowledge is scaffolded and presented in multiple, engaging ways with frequent, integrated checks for student understanding.

Use of Academic Language: Verbal and written content-related language used by teachers and students is academically rigorous, accurate, and subject and grade appropriate.

3b Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Critical Thinking and Deeper Learning: Questions and discussions require critical thinking, have multiple answers, and are used to deepen student understanding of content, themselves, and the larger world.

Reasoning and Reflection: Questions and discussions challenge students to reason, reflect on learning, justify their thinking, and generate ideas for future inquiry.

Student Participation: Students demonstrate curiosity and engage one another through questions and dialogue, challenging each other’s thinking with respect and humility.

3c Engaging Students in Learning [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Rich Learning Experiences: Students demonstrate agency and critical thinking in completion of tasks and activities that require high levels of intellectual engagement.

Collaboration and Teamwork: Student collaboration is a key component of learning and engagement, and students take initiative to collaborate in new or unplanned ways that further their learning and make it more engaging and meaningful.

Use of Instructional Materials and Resources: Instructional materials and resources are used effectively to support intellectual engagement and deep learning of the content.

Opportunities for Thinking and Reflection: Individual lessons, activities, and tasks, as well as instructional pathways, have multiple and effective opportunities to think, reflect, and consolidate understanding.

3d Using Assessment for Learning [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Clear Standards for Success: Collaborative goals, the characteristics of high quality work, and the criteria established as evidence of success are clear to students and those supporting them.

Monitoring Student Understanding: Teachers and students are constantly monitoring learning and making use of specific strategies to elicit evidence of understanding.

Timely, Constructive Feedback: High-quality feedback comes from many sources, including students; it is specific and focused on improvement.

3e Responding Flexibly to Student Needs [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Evidence-Based Adjustments: When appropriate, teachers use their expertise to alter or replace pre-planned activities based on students’ understanding, questions, and interests.

Receptiveness and Responsiveness: Teachers are open to and capitalize upon unexpected student actions, questions, and internal and external events; they encourage and support students to pursue new learning and opportunities on their own.

Determination and Persistence: Teachers are committed to efficacy, even when students encounter difficulty in learning, and pursue alternative approaches when necessary to help students be successful.



4a Engaging in Reflective Practice [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Self-Assessment of Teaching: Teachers use evidence from activities and assessments to identify the impact of different elements of practice on student learning and evaluate the success of learning experiences.

Analysis and Discovery: Based on their self-assessment, teachers consider alternative approaches or perspectives, question their own ideas or beliefs, and learn new ways to further advance student learning.

Application and Continuous Improvement: Teachers demonstrate commitment to the success of each student by planning, practicing, and trying new approaches to enhance their teaching based on their assessment and analysis.

4b Documenting Student Progress [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Student Progress Toward Mastery: The teacher documents student progress toward learning and developmental goals and shares information with students, parents, and educational collaborators.

Shared Ownership: With support from teachers, students utilize resources to monitor their progress toward learning and developmental goals and regularly analyze and discuss their progress with teachers and caregivers.

Maintaining Reliable Records: The teacher consistently gathers, updates, and shares data that is accurate, accessible, and clear to students and families.

4c Engaging Families and Communities [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Respect and Cultural Competence: Teachers interact with families and the community in ways that respect their values and cultural backgrounds.

Community Values: Learning experiences and environments are extensions of the community and uphold its values, creating a shared vision of student success.

Instructional Program: Established structures and processes keep families informed about the instructional program and provide opportunities for input and feedback.

Engagement in Learning Experiences: Teachers connect students’ out-of-school learning and lives to their efforts in school and take the lead in forming partnerships and relationships to strengthen those connections.

4d Contributing to School Community and Culture [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Relational Trust and Collaborative Spirit: Teachers develop strong relationships with students and colleagues that support professional learning, collaboration, mutual trust, and student success.

Culture of Inquiry and Innovation: Teachers contribute to the culture of the school by modeling school values, helping to identify underlying problems, and taking positive action toward their solution.

Service to the School: Teachers extend their influence beyond their classrooms by leading and contributing to school events, projects, and initiatives.

4e Growing and Developing Professionally [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Curiosity and Autonomy: Teachers identify personal and professional growth areas and independently seek opportunities to develop and refine their knowledge.

Developing Cultural Competence: Teachers seek knowledge regarding the students and community they serve and apply findings to their practice and development of the school culture.

Enhancing Knowledge and Skills: Teachers work to deepen content and pedagogical knowledge and exchange new learning with colleagues.

Seeking and Acting on Feedback: Teachers seek opportunities to receive and provide feedback and work collaboratively and constructively to utilize feedback effectively.

4f Acting in Service of Students [ FFT in Action ] [ Scroll Top ]

Acting with Care, Honesty, and Integrity: Teachers consistently model care, honesty, and integrity in interactions with students, families, and colleagues.

Ethical Decision-Making: Teachers make wise decisions, especially under challenging circumstances, that are in the best interest of students and their families.

Advocacy: Teachers are active advocates for students, their families, and colleagues and lead in taking action on their behalf.